The potential of GOS to significantly modify intestinal microflora has previously been demonstrated in other animal species. For example, in studies conducted with pigs, dietary GOS significantly increased fecal populations of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria ( Smiricky-Tjardes et al., 2003 ). Rowland and Tanaka (1993) studied the effects of a GOS-containing diet on gut flora metabolism in rats and reported significant increases in total anaerobes, bifidobacteria, and lactobacilli with significant decreases in enterobacteria. Similarly, Ito et al. (1990) observed significant increases in bifidobacteria and lactobacilli populations with significant decreases in Bacteroides and Candida populations on the human intestinal microflora. These studies showed that the intake of GOS significantly modified the fecal microbiota.