Mommertz and co-workers (2009) stated that outcome of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is defined by mortality rate and the neurological outcome due to cerebral ischemia. These investigators assessed the role of the acute phase protein PCT as a predictor for neurological deficits following carotid endarterectomy. A total of 55 patients with high grade stenosis of the internal carotid artery and inter-disciplinary consensus for endarterectomy were followed. Neurological examination was performed before and after the procedure to analyze peri-operative neurological deficits. Blood samples were obtained before and after CEA and PCT was analyzed in 55 consecutive patients ( % symptomatic/ % asymptomatic). No peri-operative or in-hospital death was observed. Major complications did not occur, 2 patients suffered from bleeding requiring surgical intervention and 1 patient had a temporary peripheral facial nerve lesion. Post-operative neurological examination revealed no new deficit, there was no significant change of PCT (level pre- and post-CEA (the mean pre-operative PCT was ng/ml [SD , min = , max = ]; the mean post-operative PCT was ng/ml [SD , min = , max = ]). There was no association found between peri-operative neurological deficit and PCT. The authors concluded that these findings demonstrates that there is still insufficient evidence to recommend PCT measurement as a predictor for peri-operative neurological deficit during CEA.